In addition to sand filtration, the Dutch employ techniques such as ionization and activated charcoal to purify water without using chlorine.
New technologies, such as membrane filtration and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, thoroughly clean the water of micro-contaminants. It’s no coincidence that many of these techniques were developed in the Netherlands.
However, the Dutch also has extensive knowledge of cost-effective desalination technology. Desalination, when combined with membrane filtration and distillation, is an effective solution for countries in delta regions that lack sufficient supplies of fresh water.